- CSS is used to control presentation, formatting, and layout.
- confirmation boxes;
- slide in calls-to-action;
- browser-based games;
- animation and other special effects;
- security features such as passwords;
- automatically refreshing newsfeeds; and
- developing mobile applications.
Creation at Netscape
As the beta of Netscape 2.0 was slated for release in September of 1995, Eich had to move quickly. The initial prototype—then deemed “Mocha”—was created in 10 days in May 1995, with further work over the summer to eliminate bugs, respond to feature requests, and design APIs that would allow Mocha to interact with Netscape. These APIs laid the groundwork for what would eventually be known as the Document Object Model (DOM), a key interface for interacting with HTML and XML documents.
- designed for creating network-centric applications;
- complementary to and integrated with Java;
- complementary to and integrated with HTML; and
- open and cross-platform.
- requesting a user’s phone number or zip code;
- alerting users to invalid form entries;
- creating check boxes;
- adding “back” buttons to easily navigate websites;
- preserving state between webpages to track user actions; and
- playing animations, scrolling texts, or audio files.
ActiveX and NetscapeONE: Toward App Development
JScript and ActiveX
In addition, JScript could integrate with the wider Microsoft ecosystem as part of a suite of technologies known as ActiveX. As stated in a 1996 press release, ActiveX was intended to “form a robust framework for creating interactive content using software components, scripts and existing applications” and enabled users to “integrate applications into Web browsers so data managed by those applications becomes accessible as Web pages.” It also allowed for the creation of interactive applications on the server side via support for JScript as well as VBScript, a scripting language derived from Microsoft’s Visual Basic.
Standardization and Expansion
Over the course of the 2000s, the introduction and rapid growth of wireless Internet, Internet-connected mobile devices, cloud computing, and social media were driving Internet use to new heights, requiring more and more capacity to serve that traffic. In 2009, frustration with the inability of Apache HTTP servers to handle concurrent requests in the tens and hundreds of thousands inspired the creation of Node.js.